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1. CSS & Digital Publishing

CSS is the abbreviation for Cascading Style Sheet. A style sheet simply holds a collection of rules that we define to enable us to manipulate our web pages. CSS can be applied to our web pages in many ways; however the most powerful way to employ CSS rules is from an external cascading style sheet. When used in this manner, the full power of CSS can be used to control the design and appearance of our work from a single controlling location, which makes it easy to update our site on a global basis. Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.

Current work based on Indic layout requirements in CSS & Digital Publishing are shown below :

1. First draft of Indic layout requirements

2. Minimum Requirements of E-publishing for Indic (pdf file) 926 KB

2. Mobile Technology

SMS standard

The mobile technology is an important means of communications today. With the accelerating growth of this technology in India, the number of subscribers from rural areas will grow manifold for the simple reason that English literacy is relatively low in rural areas. In other words, unless Indian language messaging support is improved significantly, a large number of subscribers will be deprived of the benefits of SMS.

In the Mobile technology, the multilingual data handling becomes vital across different layers. Any chosen encoding scheme for data transmission should consider the following:

1. The data encoding scheme should support all possible characters, character combinations in Indian Languages as per Unicode standard

2. There should be a provision to change languages within a single message.

3. The encoding should be flexible for future Unicode standard.

Currently prevalent 3 SMS encoding schemes in India are :

ISCII based 7-Bit encoding

7-bit default alphabets as per GSM standard


The GSM standard supports 7-bits default alphabet and UCS2. For Indian languages, these encodings have their own pros and cons; especially when it comes to number of characters, standard implementation etc. The 7-bit EA-ISCII is capable of handling all the intricacies of Indian languages but it lacks the flexibility and at present does not support all the Unicode characters.But adopting 7-bit standards to cater growing demands of Indian Languages will not make mobile devices truly localized for Indian languages.

Meetings based on SMS Standard for Indian languages

1st Meeting (pdf file) 142 KB

2nd Meeting (pdf file) 133 KB

3rd Meeting (pdf file) 130 KB

4th Meeting (pdf file) 345 KB

Consultation papers

1. Consultation paper for Mobile Manufacturers (pdf file) 865 KB

2. Consultation paper for Mobile Service Providers (pdf file) 652 KB

3. Consultation paper for VAS (pdf file) 895 KB

3. Semantic web

E-Goveranance in India has recently gained momentum through various National and State Level Mission Mode Projects, having the objective of better citizen centric services and long term vision of 'Digital Unite for All'. However the accessibility of data is still a major concern as most of the data are coupled with applications and not reusable for better planning and coordination. To overcome this barrier, National Data Accessibility Policy has been framed, which will enable use of open linked data and other semantic web technologies to create an ecosystem of open framework data publishing and accessibility. we shall eleucidate the present state of implementation of E-Governance in India and future direction towards Open Linked Data for reaching out towards masses.

1. Background paper on Semantic Web (pdf file) 144 KB

2. Presentation on NLP Interchange format(NIF) (pdf file) 1.15 MB

3. Research Paper on Semantic Web (pdf file) 334 KB

4. Internationalization teg set 2.0

ITS 2.0 is a framework to add metadata to Web content, for the benefit of localization, language technologies, and internationalization [1]. The Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0 addresses some of the challenges and opportunities related to internationalization, translation, and localization. ITS 2.0 in particular contributes to concepts in the realm of metadata for internationalization, translation, and localization related to core Web technologies such as XML.The ITS 2.0 specification both identifies concepts (such as “Translate”) that are important for internationalization and localization, and defines implementations of these concepts (termed “ITS dataInternationalization Tag Set (ITS).

ITS 2.0 requirements for Indian languages (pdf file) 267 KB

5. Speech Technology

Speech processing provides powerful capabilities for improving the interaction between humans and machines, and between humans using machines. Speech processing can also be enhanced with Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology to model the human capacity to comprehend and process the content of human language, and to enable translation of a spoken sentence from one language to another, and many other intelligent linguistic applications. Speech Tools help in a great extent for providing information access interface to differently-abled persons such as people with visual and cerebral disability. Since Speech Resources are the key building blocks for development of speech based systems, initiatives are being taken to develop speech resources for Indian Languages. To develop Speech Resources for synthesis, recognition and speaker identification, different standards and methodologies are required.

1. Pronunciation Lexicon Specification (PLS) Draft (pdf file) 493 KB

2. Part of Speech(POS) Draft Standard

3. Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML)requirements for Indic (pdf file) 74 KB

4. Report of Workshop on PLS for Indic languages (pdf file) 170 KB

6. WOFF(Web Open Font Format)

WOFF requirements for Indian languages (pdf file) 1.40 MB KB

7.Web Accessibility

1.Guidelines for Indian Government website

2. WCAG 2.0 Guidelines in Hindi(Contributed by Centre for Internet and Society)

7.Web & TV

TV is a mature but rapidly-changing market. With the advent of IP-based devices, connected TVs are progressing at a fast pace and traditional TV broadcasting is quickly evolving into a more immersive experience where users can interact with rich applications that are at least partly based on Web technologies. There is strong growth in the deployment of devices that integrate regular Web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and SVG, coupled with various device APIs. There is huge potential for the future to create an interoperable platform where Web and TV benefit from each other. For instance, TV comes with quality of services requirements for video delivery that would benefit video delivery on the Web, e.g. through the introduction of HTTP adaptive streaming mechanisms.

Background paper on Web & TV(pdf file) 588 KB

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Website Last Updated on : 28 Nov 2016